Tag: divorce

CAN I GET DIVORCED ONLINE WITHOUT GOING TO COURT IN CONNECTICUT?

This Week’s Blog by Westport divorce lawyer Jaime S. Dursht

CAN I GET DIVORCED ONLINE WITHOUT GOING TO COURT IN CONNECTICUT?

Yes, the State of Connecticut Judicial Branch has announced that uncontested divorces will be permitted remotely, without the requirement of physical presence in court. This is significant given the current status of court closures because it means that if you have reached agreement with your spouse on the terms of your divorce, you will be able to proceed to judgment on the papers.

Are Divorce Separation Agreements Negotiated Remotely in Connecticut?

The majority of divorce settlements are negotiated remotely with the exchange of settlement correspondence followed by drafts of the divorce agreements (called Separation Agreements). If negotiation reaches impasse, there are alternate dispute resolution options that are available on a virtual basis. Proceedings that were held in conference rooms two months ago are now taking place over conference calls and virtual meeting space. Professional mediators are conducting sessions using Zoom for example, and attorneys continue to move their cases forward utilizing remote applications and tools that are no less effective from home computers.

What are the Uncontested Divorce Requirements in Connecticut?

The Judicial Branch filing system has been paperless since 2015 when it required the electronic filing of nearly all legal documents and pleadings that would otherwise have been filed in person at the courthouse clerks’ offices. To proceed with an uncontested divorce, a fully executed Separation Agreement and sworn Financial Affidavits must be e-filed with the court, and if applicable, Child Support Guidelines, an Affidavit Concerning Children, and Advisement of Rights. Until recently, the parties and counsel were required to personally appear before a judge for an uncontested hearing for approval and entry of the Separation Agreement as final orders of the court.

What is the Procedure for a Final Online Divorce in Connecticut?

The Judicial Branch has now made it possible to meet the legal requirements of an uncontested divorce online by requiring Affidavits to be filed (Affidavit in Support of Entry of Divorce Judgment, Plaintiff or Defendant) in lieu of in-person testimony, and a Request for Approval of Final Agreement Without Court Appearance.

Broder & Orland LLC, with offices in Westport and Greenwich, concentrates in family law and divorce. Our attorneys are extremely knowledgeable and prepared to conduct remote and/or virtual negotiation and settlements as well as final online uncontested divorce.

When Cheating Counts in a Connecticut Divorce

This week’s blog by Westport divorce lawyer Jaime S. Dursht

WHEN CHEATING COUNTS IN A CONNECTICUT DIVORCE

There is a widely held perception that because Connecticut is a no-fault divorce State, that cheating or adultery or whatever term is used to describe marital infidelity, does not affect the outcome.  That is only partially true.  No-fault divorce means that a party is not required to allege and prove wrongful conduct, e.g., adultery, in order to obtain a divorce.  It does not mean, however, that it will not be considered by a court in its determination of how the marital estate is to be divided or the extent of an alimony obligation because it is a relevant factor to both of these if it caused the breakdown of the marriage, and depending on the degree of infidelity, could very well impact the final outcome.

Will My Spouse Allege Infidelity as Grounds for a Connecticut Divorce? 

Connecticut Family Law statutes provide:  “A decree of dissolution of a marriage or a decree of legal separation shall be granted upon a finding that one of the following causes has occurred: … (3) adultery; … ” and further provides: “For the purposes of this section, “adultery” means voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and a person other than such person’s spouse.” C.G.S. 46b-40.  While adultery remains on the books as a cause of action for divorce, the more commonly claimed ground is that of irretrievable breakdown of the marriage which serves to establish the jurisdiction of the court without unnecessary scandal or embarrassment that might otherwise result at the commencement of the action.  However, alleging irretrievable breakdown as grounds for divorce does not prevent or preclude the subsequent consideration of infidelity by the court for other purposes such as asset division and alimony.

Will Infidelity Affect How Marital Assets are Divided in a Connecticut Divorce?

Possibly, yes.  It depends on how egregious, how flagrant, how inappropriate or how persistent the conduct was and the degree to which it caused the breakdown of the marriage.  Here are just a few examples in a nutshell:

Where a husband’s repeated infidelity, alcohol use, lack of communication and dictatorial personality caused the breakdown of the marriage, it was not an abuse of the court’s discretion to award the wife 67% of the marital assets.  Greco v. Greco, 70 Conn.App. 735 (2002).

Where a husband’s extramarital conduct was so flagrant, so inappropriate and so frequent that it resulted in the breakdown of the marriage, the court awarded 70% of most of the assets to the wife.  The husband had fathered a child out of wedlock and spent considerable family resources on the paramour and child.  Thomson v. Thomson, Superior Court of Connecticut, judicial district of Stamford-Norwalk, docket no. FA1304024747S, August 4, 2015 (Shay, J.).

Where a husband was found to be a playboy who fathered another woman’s child during the marriage, the court awarded 70% of the marital estate to the wife.  Blint v. Blint, Superior Court of Connecticut, judicial district of Hartford, docket no. FA000723514S, March 8, 2002 (Brennan, J.).

The cause of the breakdown of the marriage is just one of many statutory factors the court considers when dividing the marital estate and its conclusion is based on the comparative fault of the parties.  The examples above are extreme but nevertheless illustrate how courts have handled egregious infidelity during a marriage.

Will Infidelity Affect the Award of Alimony in a Connecticut Divorce?

The statutory factors that a court will consider in the division of marital assets are very similar  to those considered in making an award of alimony, and include  the cause of the breakdown of the marriage  as a relevant factor to the determination of alimony.  The difference, however, is that the purpose of alimony is for a spouse to meet an ongoing duty to support the other spouse as a result of the marriage.  While a court is not obligated to articulate the weight it gives each statutory factor, other factors tend to be more relevant to the determination such as one’s age, health, employability, occupation, station and sources of income.

Will Infidelity be Publicized during a Connecticut Divorce?

Generally, no.  Although trials are public in the sense that the courthouse doors are open to the general public, it is rare that divorce trials are attended by anyone other than the parties involved and possibly other litigants attending court for their own matters.  After the conclusion of trial there will be a Memorandum of Decision issued which is a public document in that it is published and made available through online legal research providers, but unless there are celebrities involved the decisions are not otherwise publicized.

Most divorces are privately negotiated and resolved without a trial, however, it is important to keep in mind that the successful negotiation, mediation or other type of dispute resolution will rely on data derived from trial outcomes.  Infidelity as well as other types of misconduct during a marriage are not only relevant but often influence the dynamic of a negotiation and may affect bargaining positions. Therefore, it is critical to have legal counsel with substantive knowledge of the relevant issues but just as critical to have counsel experienced in litigation should it become necessary.

Broder & Orland LLC, with offices in Westport and Greenwich, concentrates in family law and divorce.  Our attorneys are extremely knowledgeable with the issues of how and to what degree various factors of fault may impact marital asset division and alimony, and are experienced courtroom advocates in advancing and defending claims of fault.

  

CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENTS AND THE DISCLOSURE OF SENSITIVE BUSINESS RECORDS IN A DIVORCE

This Week’s Blog by Andrew M. Eliot, a Westport and Greenwich attorney at Broder & Orland LLC.

Confidentiality Agreements and the Disclosure of Sensitive Business Records in a Divorce

           While divorce can be a difficult and stressful process under normal circumstances, it can be especially stressful and complicated for business owners, or for anyone who holds an ownership interest in a business.    Many business owners (or business interest owners) want, or are otherwise required by company policy, to keep certain records and information regarding their business confidential. However, in Connecticut, a business interest constitutes an asset that is subject to equitable distribution between divorcing parties and, as result, where a business interest is at stake in a divorce, a professional appraisal of that interest by a business valuation expert is often necessary. What happens when your spouse asks you to produce confidential or sensitive business records?

Are Confidential or Sensitive Business Records Discoverable in a Divorce?

Generally speaking, yes. In a divorce, each party has the right to seek full and complete disclosure of any and all pertinent financial records from his or her spouse. Accordingly, if you own a business or own an interest in a business, your spouse will be entitled to seek information relating to your business interest (even sensitive or otherwise confidential information ) which is relevant to any financial issues in your divorce including, for example, the value of your business interest or the amount of income that you derive from a business. While you will always maintain a right to object to any specific requests for information (on any number of available bases), at the end of the day you may be required by a judge to produce sensitive information that you or your business would otherwise wish to keep confidential.

How Can I Limit Exposure of Confidential Business Information?

A common way to limit the exposure of any sensitive and/or confidential business information that you are required to disclose to your spouse in a divorce is to execute a Confidentiality Agreement, also referred to as a Non-Disclosure Agreement.

What is a Confidentiality Agreement?

A Confidentiality Agreement is a legal contract between parties establishing a confidential relationship between a person or company who is required to disclose sensitive information, and the person(s) to whom such information will be disclosed. In the context of a divorce, a Confidentiality Agreement typically precludes the non-disclosing spouse (i.e., the spouse who has requested and is receiving the confidential information) from disseminating the confidential information he or she receives pursuant to the Agreement to any third parties, typically with the exception of his or her attorney or any relevant experts that he or she has retained. Depending on the nature of the business and/or the information at issue, the disclosing party may also ask a court to seal the court record to prevent any information offered into evidence at a judicial proceeding from becoming public.

What Should be Included in a Confidentiality Agreement?

While Confidentiality Agreements should not be approached with a “one size fits all,” mentality, any such Agreement should, at a minimum: (1) define with specificity the type of information that will be protected by the Agreement; (2) delineate clearly the person(s) or institution(s) to whom any confidential information disclosed pursuant to the Agreement may be disseminated; (3) set forth with specificity the purposes for which confidential information may be utilized; (4) set forth with specificity what measures any parties to whom confidential information is disseminated must take to ensure that confidentiality is maintained (including rules about how confidential materials must be stored and/or maintained and how and when they must be destroyed); and (5) setting forth remedies that the disclosing party may seek against the non-disclosing party if the Confidentiality Agreement is breached.

At Broder & Orland LLC, we are extremely experienced and adept at drafting and negotiating Confidentiality Agreements in order to help our clients protect against the dissemination of confidential or otherwise sensitive business information.

 

 

PRENUPTIAL AGREEMENTS AND WEDDING POSTPONEMENTS IN THE TIME OF COVID-19

This Week’s Blog by Andrew M. Eliot, a Westport and Greenwich lawyer at Broder & Orland LLC.

PRENUPTIAL AGREEMENTS AND WEDDING POSTPONEMENTS IN THE TIME OF COVID-19

Over the course of the past three weeks, as a result of COVID-19, our office has received a variety of inquiries from both current and potential clients wondering what impact, if any, the postponement of their wedding plans will have upon (a) an already-executed prenuptial agreement, or (b) the advisability of commencing or continuing with the negotiation of a prenuptial agreement in the absence of a date-certain for the anticipated wedding.

Timing: When are Prenuptial Agreements Typically Signed?

A prenuptial agreement is a written contract entered into by two people before they are married. Its purpose is to resolve, in advance, various financial matters that will necessarily arise from the marriage in the event of divorce or death of a spouse.

While there are no specific rules about how far in advance of a marriage date a prenuptial agreement must be signed, family law practitioners typically (and wisely) advise parties to execute a prenuptial agreement well in advance of a wedding date. Doing so not only ensures that parties have sufficient time to consider the agreement before getting married, it helps ensure that the agreement will be enforced by a court should either party later challenge the validity of the agreement on the basis that it was signed under duress. Signing an agreement well in advance of a wedding date also avoids an unpleasant scenario wherein parties are involved in stressful contract negotiations shortly before their wedding which can cast a dark shadow over an otherwise exciting and joyful event.

If My Wedding Has Been Postponed, Is my Signed Prenuptial Agreement Effective?

Although prenuptial agreements are executed prior to the date of marriage, unlike most contracts, they do not become effective when the Agreement is signed. Rather, prenuptial agreements (unless otherwise provided) only become effective when the parties to the agreement actually get married. Accordingly, if you have already signed a prenuptial agreement, but have postponed your wedding, your agreement is not invalidated, it’s just that the “effective date” of your agreement has now also been postponed.

Should I Sign a New Prenuptial Agreement if My Wedding Has Been Postponed?

If you have already signed a prenuptial agreement but your wedding has been postponed (whether due to COVID-19 or any other reason), it might be wise to sign a new or updated prenuptial agreement depending upon your particular circumstances. In Connecticut, like most other states, full and complete financial disclosure is required in order to ensure the enforceability of a prenuptial agreement in the event of divorce. In other words, a party to a prenuptial agreement can seek to have the prenuptial agreement set aside in the event of divorce if he or she can prove that the other party (typically the moneyed spouse) did not adequately disclose his or her assets or income.

Accordingly, if either party to a signed prenuptial agreement experiences a material change in his or her income and/or assets prior to the wedding date, it would be wise for the parties to either re-sign a new agreement closer to the wedding date with updated financial disclosures or, at the very least, attach signed and updated financial disclosures as an amendment to the initial contract close to the date of the wedding. This will help insulate each party from any claim by the other that he or she did not adequately disclose his or her assets or income in advance of the marriage date.

Should I put a Hold on Negotiating a Prenuptial Agreement Until I Know When My Wedding Will Occur?

While the timing of the execution of an agreement can be important, it is never too soon to negotiate the terms of the agreement itself. Coming to a mutual agreement about the terms and conditions of a prenuptial agreement can sometimes take several weeks or even several months, depending upon the degree of complexity of the agreement and the degree of negotiations that must take place. Accordingly, there is no reason to delay negotiating the terms of a prenuptial agreement even your actual wedding date is not going to be in the near future.

At Broder & Orland LLC, we are extremely adept at drafting and negotiating prenuptial agreements and can work with you to craft and finalize an agreement that satisfies your particular goals.

 

PARENTING PLAN MODIFICATIONS PROMPTED BY COVID-19

This Week’s Blog by Christopher J. DeMattie and Jaime S. Dursht, Westport and Greenwich attorneys at Broder & Orland LLC.

 

PARENTING PLAN MODIFICATIONS PROMPTED BY COVID-19

Parents around Fairfield County are grappling over how best to limit the daily risk of COVID-19 exposure, and for many, the social distancing and isolation measures pose logistical challenges to parenting access schedules as well as disputes over what safety practices protect the best interests of the children.

Since the law requires that custody orders be followed unless or until they are legally modified, issues arise as to how to avoid possible violations as well as how to accomplish legal modification of parenting plans, especially given the recent court closures and restrictions.

What is the Procedure to Modify my Parenting Plan?

Assuming your matter is post-judgment (a final judgment has entered), the process requires filing an Application with the Clerk. The Application must include the: (1) current Order, (2) grounds or the allegations being made to assert modification, and (3) the proposed change. Once filed, the Clerk will issue an Order assigning a specific date and time for hearing on the matter, which must then be served upon your former spouse within a specified time frame. Once service of process is completed, the action is initiated, and you and your former spouse must appear in Court on the assigned date.

Presently, until at least April 30, 2020, the Courts are limiting who may physically enter the Courthouse to those required to appear on specific emergency family matters. However, online access to filing Motions is available through the judicial e-File system, which allows for post-judgment filing when the underlying case was initiated in 2015 (when the e-File system went into effect) or later, and by facsimile filing for earlier cases.

Before the impact of COVID-19, the filing process and date assignment by the Clerk could take a day or so, however, due to the limited staff and hours at the Courthouse, we anticipate this taking much longer. Thus, if you are contemplating initiating a post-judgment Modification, it is advisable to “start the clock” running as soon as practicable.

What are the Standards for Modifications to Legal and/or Physical Custody?

The legal standard differs for modifications to legal custody versus modification to physical custody. Legal custody refers to parental decision making on matters of education, health, and religious upbringing. Physical custody refers to the schedule of parenting access or visitation.

If a party is seeking to modify only legal custody or both legal and physical custody, the modification must be based on either (1) a material change in circumstances which alters the Court’s finding of the best interests of the child, or (2) a determination that the current custody order was not based upon the best interests of the child when it was entered.

The legal standard for modification of physical custody, e.g., parenting access / visitation schedule, is that of the best interests of the child(ren). A party is not required to show a material change in circumstances.

In either case, the evidentiary burden of proof at a hearing is that of a preponderance of the evidence, which is “more likely than not.” Thus, the moving party has the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence that a change in either the legal and/or physical custody would be in the best interest of the child(ren).

What Factors will the Court Consider when Modifying Custody and/or a Parenting Plan?

In determining the best interests of the child(ren) a Court will consider many factors, including those set forth in Conn.Gen.Stat. 46b-56(c): (1) The temperament and developmental needs of the child; (2) the capacity and the disposition of the parents to understand the needs of the child; (3) any relevant and material information obtained from the child; (4) the wishes of the child’s parents as to custody; (5) the past and current interaction and relationship of the child with each parent, the child’s siblings and any other person who may significantly affect the best interests of the child; (6) the willingness and ability of each parent to facilitate and encourage such continuing parent-child relationship between the child and the other parent as is appropriate, including compliance with any court orders; (7) any manipulation by or coercive behavior of the parties in an effort to involve the child in the parents’ dispute; (8) the ability of each parent to be actively involved in the life of the child; (9) the child’s adjustment to his or her home, school and community environments; (10) the length of time that the child has lived in a stable and satisfactory environment and the desirability of maintaining continuity in such environment, provided the court may consider favorably a parent who voluntarily leaves the child family home pendente lite in order to alleviate stress in the household; (11) the stability of the child’s existing or proposed residences, or both; (12) the mental and physical health of all individuals involved, except that a disability of a proposed custodial parent or other party, in and of itself, shall not be determinative of custody unless the proposed custodial arrangement is not in the best interests of the child; (13) the child’s cultural background; (14) the effect on the child of the actions of an abuser, if any domestic violence has occurred between the parents or between a parent and another individual or the child; (15) whether the child or a sibling of the child has been abused or neglected, as defined respectively in section 46b-120; and (16) whether the party satisfactorily completed participation in a parent education program established pursuant to section 46b-69b.

Do I Risk a Charge of Contempt if I Do Not Follow the Parenting Plan?

A finding of contempt requires clear and convincing proof that (1) a clear order exists; (2) a party had the ability to comply; and (3) the party willfully did not comply. The purpose of a Motion for Contempt in the context of custody is to coerce compliance and to obtain remedial relief in the form of make-up time or possibly monetary fines.

For those parents who find themselves in precarious circumstances due to COVID-19, we advise you to do your best to adhere to your parenting plan obligations. If, for whatever reason, you find yourself unable to do that, then document your circumstances in real-time to preserve a record.

What Steps Can I Take to Reach a Temporary Agreement?

We encourage parents to attempt reasonable temporary arrangements with one another, and we are available to assist with negotiating and formalizing agreements to the extent necessary. Most Separation Agreements contain Modification Clauses that require any modification to be in writing and executed with the same formality as the Separation Agreement itself to be valid, and this applies to the terms of Custody Agreements.

Our attorneys at BRODER & ORLAND LLC, with offices in Westport and Greenwich, are very experienced with the issues of custody and parenting plan modifications. We remain available to assist you throughout the COVID-19 pandemic and thereafter, including the negotiating and formalization of temporary custody agreements.

You Lost Your Job Because of COVID-19—What Happens to Your Alimony and/or Child Support Obligation?

This Week’s Blog by Sarah E. Murray and Nicole M. DiGiose, Westport and Greenwich lawyers at Broder & Orland LLC.

The coronavirus pandemic and resulting measures to stem its spread have caused record unemployment numbers in the United States. While the full economic impact is not yet known, people who live and work in New York City and Fairfield County, two of the harder hit places in the tri-state area, have already begun to feel the effects with respect to job loss and loss of income. For those who have an alimony and/or child support obligation pursuant to a Connecticut Divorce Judgment, the natural question after losing a job, whether due to COVID-19 or otherwise, is: what impact will the job loss or reduction of income have on my obligation to pay alimony and/or child support?

Can I Modify My Alimony and/or Child Support Obligation if I Become Unemployed Because of COVID-19?

Connecticut General Statutes Section 46b-86(a) provides that alimony and/or child support obligations may be modified. Alimony may be modified “[u]nless and to the extent that the decree precludes modification.” So, unless your Divorce Agreement or Court Decision states that alimony is non-modifiable, you have the option of modifying your alimony obligation based on the loss of your employment.

In order to obtain a Court Order modifying alimony and/or child support, the party seeking the modification must prove that there has been a substantial change in circumstances. In determining whether there has been a substantial change in circumstances, a Court will compare the circumstances at the time of the last Court Order with the circumstances at the time that a party seeks a modification of that Order. Typically, a job loss in and of itself is considered to be a substantial change in circumstances. In these unprecedented times, many people are losing their jobs as a result of the economic impact of the pandemic; so, you will not be the only person making claims in a Connecticut Court that you lost your job due to COVID-19.

I Lost My Job Due to COVID-19, but I Am Receiving a Severance: Can I Still Modify?

If you receive severance payments for a period of time that are the same or substantially the same as the income received when employed, the receipt of that severance income means, in the eyes of the Court, that there has not yet been a substantial change in circumstances.

When Can I File a Motion to Modify?

Every situation is unique, but generally the appropriate time to file such a Motion is toward the end of the severance payment term, assuming that you have not found a job before that time or, if you have found a job, your income at your new employment is now substantially less.

Is My Ability to File a Motion to Modify in Court Affected by COVID-19?

Under Connecticut law, a person requesting a modification may request that the Court Order relief retroactive to the date that the Motion to Modify was personally served on the other party. The party filing the Motion to Modify must file the Motion with the Court, have a Hearing date assigned by the Court Clerk’s office, and then serve the Motion to Modify on the opposing party. The earliest date that the moving party can request for retroactivity purposes is the date of personal service on the opposing party.

As of the time of writing this article, the Courts in Connecticut are open with limited hours and are only permitting individuals to enter the building under certain circumstances, none of which include filing a Motion to Modify in person. Notwithstanding that fact, Motions may still be filed by mail or by e-filing; so, you can still file the Motion to Modify with the Court. Once you receive the assigned Hearing date from the Clerk’s office, the Motion can be served on the other party.

Because of the pandemic and resulting effects on the Connecticut Court system, the timing for receiving assigned Hearing dates on Motions to Modify that have been filed has been delayed, meaning that the date of personal service on the other party will also likely be delayed. Family lawyers in Connecticut have been seeking clarification from the Judicial Branch regarding whether temporary changes to the rules will be permitted so that there is some other standard for retroactivity, other than personal service on the opposing party, in order to address this issue. As of the time of writing this article, there has not yet been a solution presented to this problem, but the fact that there are discussions about this issue signifies that there is no harm in filing a Motion to Modify now (if appropriate to do so) and, in fact, there may be a benefit to doing so in order to preserve retroactivity.

What Documentation Should I Gather Regarding My Modification Case?

You can expect that one of the inquiries at the hearing on your Motion will be what you have done and what you currently are doing to find employment. A Court will want to know that you have made and are making bona fide efforts to obtain employment at or near the level of your prior employment. Be sure to save all of your written communications regarding your employment search, as it could become evidence at a Hearing on a Motion to Modify. It is not difficult to imagine that those seeking jobs as a result of job loss due to COVID-19 will have difficulty finding new employment in the current economic climate and that they will encounter increased competition for positions, which will be useful information to present to a Court as part of a Hearing on a Motion to Modify.

I Was Furloughed as a Result of COVID-19: Can I Modify Alimony and/or Child Support?

Some people living in Fairfield County are not permanently losing their employment as a result of COVID-19, but may suffer a temporary loss of employment or a reduction in income. Even if this change of financial circumstances is temporary, it may be appropriate to file a Motion to Modify in order to seek retroactive modification of alimony and/or child support for the time period during which the payor (or recipient, as the case may be) was receiving less income.

Can I Stop Paying or Reduce My Alimony and/or Child Support Payments if I Lose My Job or am Furloughed?

A Court Order remains in place unless and until it is modified by a Court or by agreement between the parties. Ceasing or reducing alimony and/or child support payments without the Court’s prior permission may be viewed by the Court as “self-help.” Additionally, a payor who ceases or reduces alimony and/or child support payments may be subject to a Motion for Contempt. If you have lost your job or have been furloughed, it is a good idea to file a Motion to Modify now in order to preserve retroactivity. While the Motion is pending, it may be possible to work out an agreement as to how alimony and/or child support payments may be modified.

Could I be Held in Contempt if I Stop Making or Reduce my Alimony and/or Child Support Payments?

In order to prove contempt, the moving party must demonstrate to the Court, by clear and convincing evidence, that there has been a willful violation of a clear and unambiguous Court Order. Divorce Agreements and Court Decisions are Court Orders. The question of whether an Order is clear and unambiguous is for the Judge to decide. Assuming the Court Order is clear and unambiguous, the Judge will next decide if the cessation or reduction of alimony and/or child support was willful. In determining willfulness, a Court could look at why you lost your employment, what other sources of funds you had available to you to pay alimony, and what your job search efforts have been.

At Broder & Orland LLC, our attorneys have significant experience handling cases involving the modification of alimony and/or child support when a client has lost his or her employment. We can consult with clients to shed light on whether a potential alimony and/or child support modification case is viable. Losing your job can be one of the most stressful events in your life. Our attorneys at Broder & Orland LLC are available to discuss your options with you and can provide you with a plan going forward with respect to your alimony and/or child support obligation, which may include filing a Motion to Modify and negotiating and drafting an agreement with the other side. It is our goal to give you peace of mind during these difficult times.

Can My Spouse Cut Me Off Financially if I File For Divorce?

This Week’s Blog by Lauren M. Healy, a Westport and Greenwich attorney at Broder & Orland LLC.

Can My Spouse Cut Me Off Financially if I File for Divorce?

The financial implications of filing for divorce can be scary and confusing. If your spouse has threatened to stop supporting you, or you do not have access to funds to pay your household bills on your own, you may be deterred from even starting a divorce action. There are ways for you to protect your family’s assets and to gain access to financial resources during your Connecticut divorce.

Automatic Orders

The State of Connecticut has Automatic Orders that are immediately implemented in each divorce case. These Automatic Orders are intended to keep financial circumstances status quo until the parties agree otherwise, or until there is a different court order. For example, the Automatic Orders do not allow a party to transfer, sell or encumber assets outside of the ordinary course of business. The Automatic Orders also require that certain insurance policies (homeowners, life insurance and medical insurance for example) continue to be maintained with the same benefits and beneficiaries as were in effect prior to filing.

The Automatic Orders will help protect your assets, and provide for certain expenses to be paid, but what happens to the family’s income and how are the other bills paid during the divorce?

Orders for Temporary Support

If you can, it is usually best, and often most cost effective, for you and your spouse to agree on where income will be deposited, how it will be divided and how the bills will be paid. It is very likely that with the assistance of counsel, you and your spouse can come to an agreement on these issues. If an Agreement is signed, it is submitted to the court for approval and then made a Court Order.

In situations where an Agreement cannot be reached, your attorney can file a Motion for Temporary Support, which asks the Court to issue financial orders regarding alimony, child support or contribution to household expenses.

Motions for Temporary Support can be filed immediately upon the commencement of your divorce action. These types of Motions are typically heard by the Court anywhere from a few weeks to a few months from when they are filed. At the Hearing, you and your spouse will each have the opportunity to present evidence about your family’s income, expenses, assets and financial priorities. The Judge will make the ultimate decision about how to resolve these issues.

Emergency or Ex Parte Motions

Occasionally, if the circumstances are extremely dire, your attorney may suggest filing a Motion with the Court on an emergency basis. It is possible, under certain limited circumstances, to get a temporary immediate Order from the court without a Hearing. Depending on the facts of your case, your counsel may do this “ex parte” which means without notice to your spouse. Your case will then be scheduled for a Hearing within a very short timeframe (typically two weeks or sooner) to decide if the emergency Orders should continue.

If you are contemplating filing for divorce, but you are concerned about being “cut off” from financial resources, we can help you. At Broder & Orland LLC, we can work with you to create a plan for securing support, negotiate and draft a temporary support Agreement, and if necessary, proceed with a Motion for financial support.

How does COVID-19/Coronavirus Impact my Connecticut Divorce?

This Week’s Blog by Christopher J. DeMattie., a Westport and Greenwich lawyer at Broder & Orland LLC.

Are Courts in Connecticut Open?

Yes, the Courts in Connecticut are still open as of March 17, 2020. However, until at least March 27, 2020, the Courts will schedule and hear only those matters identified as “Priority 1 Business Functions.” Specific to Family Law, “Priority 1 Business Functions” are currently limited to: (1) Family Orders of Relief from Abuse, (2) Ex-Parte Motions, and (3) Emergency Ex-Parte Orders of Temporary Custody. This means that if you have a Trial, Hearing, Status Conference, Short Calendar Event, Uncontested Hearing, or Pretrial scheduled between now and March 27, 2020, it will be canceled and rescheduled to a different date. You should talk to your attorney about strategies to try and have your matter scheduled sooner rather than later when Court resumes normal functions, if possible. If you have a matter that falls into the “Priority 1 Business Functions” category, should you talk to your attorney immediately to develop a strategy to file your matter and get into Court on an expedited basis since Court remains open for those serious matters.

Can I still file for Divorce during the COVID-19 Quarantine?

Yes. Since the Courts in Connecticut are still open as of March 17, 2020, this means you can still file a divorce action. Because most Family Law matters in Connecticut are eligible for electronic filing, you or your attorney does not even have to appear at the Courthouse to file your action. In other words, everything can be done remotely to start your case.

If you are ready to file for divorce, there are some benefits to filing now, as opposed to waiting until things return to “normal.” First, the typical divorce action currently takes between 6-18 months to complete, but this estimated timeframe is likely to be extended due to the disruption being caused by COVID-19. Second, except for limited circumstances, once you file for divorce, your divorce cannot typically be finalized until the Case Management Date, which is approximately 90-100 days after you first file for divorce. During the first 90-100 days of a divorce case, unless you need to file pendente lite Motions to address temporary financial or parenting issues while the case is pending, your case is will likely be uneventful. Typically, during this time discovery requests are exchanged, Financial Affidavits are drafted, and Parenting Plans are negotiated. The good news is that those actions often do not require face time and are done remotely. So even while you cannot go to Court at this time, you can still work on moving your divorce matter forward. Further, it may even be easier to gather discovery materials or work on your Financial Affidavit from home as opposed to attending to these sensitive matters while at the office or traveling.

Finally, based on the early reports out of China, it appears there is an increase in divorce filings once the quarantine was lifted. If true, this may simply be people deferring filing due to the quarantine or people filing due to being quarantined together! Regardless of the reason, Courts in Connecticut will likely be busier than ever once they return to normal operations. Thus, only if you are ready to file for divorce, now may be the time to start the process.

Can I still file Motions in my pending Divorce Matter during the COVID-19 Quarantine?

Yes. Since the Courts in Connecticut are still open as of March 17, 2020, this means you can still file any Motions in your pending divorce action. Except for those matters which fall into the “Priority 1 Business Functions” category, no one can tell you with absolute certainty when your Motions will be heard by the Court. However, depending on the specific facts of your case, there may still be a benefit to filing those Motions now as opposed to waiting.

If you are experiencing a substantial change in financial circumstances due to the economic impact of COVID-19, whether it be a loss of employment, a reduction in commission income, or a loss of revenue if you are a business owner, you will want to consult an attorney to discuss your options. Although a substantial change in financial circumstances will not likely warrant the filing of an Ex-Parte Motion, if appropriate, you may want to file a regular Motion for Modification now. The benefit to filing now and then having your spouse or ex-spouse served with the Motion, is that the Court then has the discretion to modify your financial orders retroactively to the date of service. This enables you to preserve your claim even while the Court is not currently scheduling financial Motions.

Also, keep in mind that unless and until an Order is modified by the Court, the existing Order remains in place and you must still follow your obligations. In other words, even if you have experienced a substantial change in circumstances, you cannot engage in self-help and voluntarily stop paying your support obligations. If you fail to do so, your spouse or ex-spouse may file a Motion for Contempt against you. Simply filing a Motion for Modification does not insulate you from a Motion for Contempt, however depending on the reasons for filing the Modification it could mitigate the impact of the Motion for Contempt. Further, as mentioned above, filing and serving the Motion for Modification provides the Court with discretion to enter retroactive orders. Since every Order and case are different, you will want to consult with an attorney to discuss your specific options.

Further, since the already busy Court system will inevitably become busier once it resumes normal operations, it may make sense to “get in line now” as opposed to waiting until things return to “normal.” Before the foregoing measures being enacted by the Court, it would typically take 3-4 weeks from the time you filed a non-emergency Motion until it was scheduled on the Short Calendar. No one knows for sure how long the wait will be once Court resumes normal operations, but it will likely be much longer than the typical 3-4 week wait.

I am worried about my children’s safety during the COVID-19 pandemic, can I keep them from my ex-spouse?

It depends. Every Parenting Plan is different, and your specific circumstances are likely different as well. Similarly, to Financial Orders, Orders related to Parenting Time and Custody must be followed unless and until the same are modified by the Court or you and your child’s other parent reach an agreement. If you have concerns about your child’s safety, generally it is good practice to first reach out to the other parent to discuss your concerns and see if you can reach an agreement that is in your child’s best interest. If you cannot agree, you should consult with your attorney to discuss your options. Further, you should consult with your child’s doctor and follow the advice of the doctor as well as the emergency declarations issued by the government. Further, if you share joint legal custody with your child’s other parent, you likely have an obligation to keep the other parent informed as to your child’s health status as well as the scheduling of any medical appointments or if you believe the situation warrants a visit to the emergency room.

Your attorney cannot advise you to disregard Court Orders, but if you have genuine concerns and your child’s other parent is not in agreement with you on how to handle the situation, you should also talk to your attorney about the consequences that a Court may impose if you fail to follow Court Orders. Also, if you and your child’s other parent reach an agreement, it is advisable to memorialize that agreement in writing (text or email would qualify) to try and protect yourself if the other parent later changes his or her mind.

Finally, if your child’s other parent desires to travel with your child during the pandemic and you do not agree, you should consult with your attorney immediately about filing an emergency Motion if you genuinely believe your child’s health or safety is at issue. As previously stated, ex-parte or emergency parenting Motions fall within the “Priority 1 Business Functions” category that the Court is still scheduling.

How does my child’s school being closed impact my Parenting Plan?

As everyone is navigating this new world with schools being closed for an indefinite period and many parents working remotely from home, your regular Parenting Plan is likely being affected. If possible, the first thing you should do is reach out to your child’s other parent to try and coordinate your new schedules to see if you can reach an agreement as to what is best for your children. If you cannot agree, or if you have questions as to interpreting your Parenting Plan you should contact an attorney for advice. Further, if your Parenting Plan is vague and/or no longer applicable (i.e. “The Mother shall have Parenting Time from after school on Wednesday until drop off at school on Friday.”) you may want to consult with your attorney to discuss various options to address Parenting Time during this time of uncertainly because an experienced Family Law attorney should be able to provide you with alternatives that have worked for other families.

Broder & Orland LLC, the largest matrimonial and family law firm in Connecticut with offices in Westport and Greenwich, remains committed to working diligently by whatever means are necessary to protect you and to advance your case during these unusual times, while also taking all recommended precautions. We are able to perform our services remotely and are able to host telephonic or virtual consultations, meetings, or mediations. If you have any questions about the impact of COVID-19 or the Coronavirus on your pending or potential divorce action, do not hesitate to call one of our experienced Family Law attorneys.

“Let’s Mediate and Save Money on Lawyers!”

This Week’s Blog by Carole T. Orland, a Westport and Greenwich attorney at Broder & Orland LLC.

“Let’s Mediate and Save Money on Lawyers!”

If you’re reading this blog and are a potential divorce candidate, you may be familiar with this refrain. Usually, it is said in a context that also includes such statements as, “Our case is so simple.” Or, “We can work it out.” Maybe, “I will be fair with you, not to worry.” Often, “If lawyers get involved it will cost a fortune and there will be less for you.” Or, “Mediation is more civil than litigation.”

Are any of these statements valid? Perhaps. But not always. It really depends on the parties and the situation at hand. At our firm, we provide mediation services, as well as litigation alternatives. The key is to screen the case at the outset to determine who and what case is appropriate for mediation.

Mediation requires a great deal of trust between the parties. That may seem odd, since you are getting divorced; however, there are situations where there is still a modicum of trust, despite the decision to go separate ways. If one party has cheated on the other, or has not been 100% transparent about finances, any trust that may have existed has likely eroded. Mediation can be difficult if the parties are in disparate positions with regard to understanding financial matters. For example, if your wife has an MBA and has been involved in complex financial transactions as part of her profession, and you are a person without similar financial acumen, the playing field in mediation will not be level. Or, if your husband is controlling and easy to anger, and you are more passive, the dynamics in mediation will likely follow that pattern making it more difficult to achieve a fair resolution.

If mediation still seems right for you, it will be important to work diligently to attain transparency and to move things along at a pace that doesn’t prejudice either party. Too many cases languish in mediation, without discovery, and prior to filing for divorce, only to fizzle out. It could mean spending weeks and months without any final result. It could also result in the expenditure of significant funds only to have to start the litigation process when the case is not resolved in mediation.

You should also be aware of adjunct costs often associated with mediation. Many people who are going through divorce mediation find it desirable or necessary to retain a coach in order to understand the negotiations, to provide context as to possible outcomes, and to assist with strategy. Even if you don’t employ a coach, at the end you will likely want an experienced divorce attorney to act as review counsel. This attorney will provide a critique of the Separation Agreement, based on the Financial Affidavits, any valuation analyses, appraisals, pleadings, and so forth. It will likely take considerable time for review counsel to provide you with an assessment of your potential settlement.

Children’s issues may also be the subject of mediation. A skilled mediator may be able to help you work though these issues to arrive at a Parenting Plan that will be incorporated into your divorce Judgment. If you and your spouse are fairly close on a Parenting Plan, mediation might assist you with ironing out some final issues. If you are fighting each other about custody, it will likely be hard to resolve your differences through mediation.

Bear in mind, litigation is not a dirty word! It can be a very reasonable alternative to mediation, where some of the issues described above are present. Litigation can be done in an amicable manner, assuming both parties and counsel are willing to do so. It can provide an efficient process for obtaining information and for ensuring that each party’s voice is heard. It can also provide transparency and ensure a level playing field. It does not necessarily result in stratospheric fees if everyone is committed to proceeding expeditiously. It means that one lawyer will be your advocate, coach and review counsel.

Litigation may also present an opportunity for mediation! Once discovery is complete, if there are still issues that prevent your case from being resolved, it can be most effective to hire a mediator to get to the end. In this scenario, the parties and their attorneys may spend a day with an experienced mediator who may be a former family law judge, an elder statesman of the bar, or a very experienced practicing divorce attorney. Most cases settle after mediation of this type.

At Broder & Orland LLC, we provide divorce mediation services as well as litigation alternatives. We are able to counsel you as to whether or not mediation is right for you and if so what type of mediation will ensure the best process and the optimal result.

What Should I Expect at Trial?

This Week’s Blog by Nicole M. DiGiose., a Westport and Greenwich lawyer at Broder & Orland LLC.

Will my Case go to Trial?

Divorce trials are rare in Connecticut. However, in the event the parties are unable to reach a settlement as to either or both parenting and financial issues, the disputed issues will be submitted to the Court for determination after a trial.

When will my Case be Ready for Trial?

Typically, a case will be ready for trial after all discovery has been exchanged and reviewed, depositions have been completed, and, if applicable, any and all experts have completed their evaluations and reports.

How do I Prepare for Trial?

Prior to trial, you will meet with your attorney to go over your testimony and how to testify. It is important that you provide a marital history in advance of trial so that your attorney has all of the relevant factual information involving your marriage and can prepare an outline of important topics to be covered. Although your attorney will have reviewed all discovery and depositions in advance, it is important for you to review those documents as well.

How Do I Testify?

When you are called as a witness, you will take the witness stand and be sworn in by the Clerk. This involves an affirmative response that you will tell the truth while testifying. You will then be asked questions by both attorneys. It is imperative that you listen to the question being asked of you and that you answer only that question. Unresponsive answers may be stricken from the record. It is also important that you wait until the question is completed. The Court Monitor takes down everything that is said during a trial, so no one should talk over another person. If you hear the word “objection,” you should wait to answer until the Judge has made his or her ruling on the objection.

 Do any Documents need to be Submitted Prior to Trial?

Yes. Ten days before a trial, the following documents must be submitted to the Court: Proposed Orders, which may include a Proposed Parenting Plan if custody and parenting issues have not been resolved, a Financial Affidavit, a list of any outstanding Motions to be heard, as well as a list of potential exhibits and witnesses. If child support is at issue, a Child Support Guidelines Worksheet must also be submitted.

Who Will Testify at Trial?

 Both parties will testify. If there are outstanding parenting issues and a Guardian Ad Litem has been appointed, he or she will testify as to his or her recommendation and the basis thereof. In some cases, there may be additional third-party witnesses, such as expert witnesses or fact witnesses. Common examples of expert witnesses include business evaluators, custody evaluators, and real estate appraisers.

What Actually Happens at Trial?

 The Plaintiff will go first. He or she will call witnesses to testify and introduce relevant exhibits during the examination of each witness. The Defendant will have the opportunity to cross-examine the Plaintiff’s witnesses. Once the Plaintiff has completed its case-in-chief, the Defendant will present its case by following the same process as the Plaintiff. The Guardian Ad Litem, if applicable, typically testify after both sides have completed their cases-in-chief.

When Will I Receive a Decision?

Judges in Connecticut have 120 days to render their decision. The Judge may issue his or her decision before the expiration of the 120-day timeframe, or may ask for an extension, if necessary.

Is my Trial Public?

Generally, yes. Any member of the public may sit in the gallery during a trial. On rare occasions, the Courtroom may be closed.

Can I Order a Transcript of My Divorce Proceedings?

Yes. The Court Monitor takes down everything that is said during a trial.

In the event your case goes to trial, the attorneys at Broder & Orland LLC will ensure that your case is ready and that you are absolutely prepared. While testifying can be stressful, we make sure you are as comfortable as possible during your trial.